ABC Hints&Tips Overviews Reference Glossary Support
Contents : Support : FAQ
FAQ: SuperMemo 2002 (Archive)

SuperMemo 2002 

You can design the look of your elements
To have a template applied with Add new, you must select the appropriate category

You can automatically add multiple-choice items to a given category

Cannot paste a picture

You can specify different templates for different categories

Limited Unicode support
Gibberish titles in Arabic
Importing attachments together with e-mail

The default font setting in Tools : Options : Font will not be reflected in elements using HTML components
Templates in the template registry are not imported into a new collection upon the transfer

Converting reading lists to incremental reading material

Adding articles to the reading list

Starting from basics in incremental reading
Why Chinese characters do not show up correctly in Contents

Empty texts indicate integrity problem

Before you drag elements in the Contents windows, make sure to set the desired mode for drag-and-drop operations

SuperMemo 2000 is free for users of SuperMemo 2002

Remember to copy header information to e-mail tasklist
Errors in counting operation progress are harmless
How to avoid "Wait for document loading"

Blocking parts of pictures

Upgrading from SuperMemo 2000

You cannot open SM2002 collections with earlier versions of SuperMemo
First recovery will correct topic-item statistics
Old SuperMemo called after an upgrade to SuperMemo 2002

Repetition history errors on upgrade
Repetition history errors

Upgrading to HTML

RTF will still be the default format in a collection upgraded from SuperMemo 2000
Converting RTFs to HTMLs en masse
Inspecting text file format
Upgrading plain text
Lost formatting on RTF -> HTML upgrade
Fonts size on upgrade
Subscript conversion problems
SuperMemo 2002 peels off meta tags


You can specify different templates for different categories
(Karolina Melkowska, Poland, Wednesday, October 09, 2002 8:58 PM)
Question:
I am adding a lot of new items, which belong to different topic categories, to my collection. How could I automatically append individual elements to their topic categories?
Answer:
You would have to define the default template for a given category. To do that, go to the category registry with Search : Categories from the main menu, select a category in the left pane, and select a template for your category by means of the Template button in the top right pane of the registry window.
Remember, when you add new items with the Add new button in the element window, new elements are added to the currently selected category. You can switch among categories with the Category combo box available on the Tools toolbar


Why Chinese characters do not show up correctly in Contents
(Richard Bai, China, Sunday, December 01, 2002 3:33 PM)
Question:
Contents window in SuperMemo 2002 cannot display the collection tree correctly, like ">>M!UK1^*:#()P". Chinese characters become symbols and codes. But SuperMemo 2000 can display the right Chinese which we input
Answer:
The difference isn't actually between SuperMemo 2000 and SuperMemo 2002. It comes from the differences between HTML and RTF components. Both HTML and RTF components can display Chinese characters by means of Unicode. However, text registry in SuperMemo is 8-bit based. Titles in captions and in Contents windows must use 8-bit character strings stored in the registry. RTF components do not translate Unicode while generating titles. As a result, the text may appear unchanged in captions and in the contents windows. However, some Unicode characters ambiguously convert to code page based 8-bit character set resulting in many-to-one mapping. For some very short texts, this produces texts substitutions in non-Latin languages. For that reasons, HTML components used a simple algorithm to minimize ambiguity (without resorting to multi-byte conversions). As a result, texts in the text registry are sometimes converted to strings that do not resemble the original Unicode text. As SuperMemo 2002 uses HTML by default (SuperMemo 2000 uses RTF by default), you may have an impression that texts are treated differently by these two programs. The recommended approach is: 

  1. Either use RTF format if your texts do not cause ambiguous substitutions, or 
  2. Use HTML texts and use Rename in text registry to provide meaningful names to texts converted by SuperMemo. Use Alt+T to change titles in the element window or click on texts in the contents window to edit them in place. SuperMemo will warn you if your renames were to cause any ambiguity

SuperMemo 2004 partly solves this problem by using UTF-8 encoding


Limited support for Unicode in SuperMemo 2002
(Gordon Black, Sunday, March 17, 2002 9:49 PM)
Question:
Will SuperMemo 2002 support Unicode?
Answer:
There is limited support for Unicode in HTML component. You can paste Unicode texts but text registries remain 256-character based. You will be able to use Unicode in your learning material but some functions of the program may ignore Unicode characters


Converting reading lists to incremental reading material
(Luis, Nov 03, 2002)
Question:
I want to put an entire reading list to incremental reading. Is it a good idea? How can I memorize an entire tasklist and convert tasks to topics? Make topics does not change tasks!
Answer:
Well managed incremental reading makes reading lists superfluous. If you have mastered all skills needed to handle substantial article overload, introducing your entire reading list to incremental reading process is a good idea. Unfortunately, you can convert tasks only individually or by deleting the entire tasklist. In your case, you can do the following:

  1. Ctrl+Shift+B in Tasklist Manager to display the tasklist in the browser (you can save it as a subset to be sure you can open the subset at any time in the future)
  2. Delete tasklist from the tasklist registry (Search : Tasklists), and all tasks will be converted to topics
  3. Open the last browser with Last browser and execute Learn : Remember to introduce all tasks into the learning process

 


Starting from basics in incremental reading
(Mail Archive, 1998-2000)
Question:
How to be sure that the reading list produces basic articles before the articles which build upon the basics?
Answer:
Ideally, you should use context-independent texts or introduce the complex articles only when they can be understood. You can only manipulate values and deadlines. If B is dependent on A, the value of A should naturally be higher but A may still not surface on top of the tasklist if it is long enough. In such cases you might use deadlines to postpone reading B by a chosen period. Another useful technique for dealing with incomprehensible texts is to dismember the articles without generating active recall items, and use Ctrl+J to manually set the next review around the time when the unclear details are hoped for to be better understood


Adding articles to the reading list
(Beta, 01/04/2002 12:08:23 ă)
Question:
How do I import web pages directly into the reading list without first saving the page on my computer?
Answer:
Copy the article to the clipboard and choose Edit : Add to reading list : Article


You can automatically add multiple-choice items to a given category
(Karolina Melkowska, Poland, Friday, September 20, 2002 11:18 PM)
Question:
How can I automatically create multiple choice items for a given category?
Answer:
You would have to specify the Multiple Choice predefined template as the default template for a given category. The procedure for the exemplary Multiple-Choice Tests category would look as follows:
(1) Open the Categories registry by selecting Search : Categories from the main menu
(2) Select the Multiple-Choice Tests member in the left pane of the Categories registry
(3) In the top right pane of the registry, press the Template button (it should open the Template registry)
(4) In the Template registry, select the Multiple Choice member in the left pane of the registry and press the Accept button at the bottom of the window
(5) Close the Categories registry window
From now on, when the Multiple-Choice Tests category is selected, each time you append a new item its default template will be Multiple Choice


Templates in the template registry are not imported into a new collection upon the transfer (#208)
(Asia, Poland, Friday, November 22, 2002 11:42 AM)
Question:
I have created a separate collection of English Irregular Verbs with specifically designed templates that I would later like to import into my master collection. Everything seems to be OK apart from the fact that templates stored in the template registry are not getting imported. What should I do to import them into my master collection?
Answer:
Templates stored in the template registry are not automatically imported during the transfer. However, you could save new ones in the template registry of your master collection by right-clicking on an element with a given look and selecting Templates : Save as template from the element menu


You can design the look of your elements (#159)
(Richard Bai, Sunday, December 15, 2002 12:00 AM)
Question:
In SuperMemo 2000, the default template of a new item were two white RTF components against the default background set in Windows color scheme. In SuperMemo 2002, it has been replaced with two white HTML components against the white background. I prefer the old solution more to the present one. How could I change it?
Answer:
(1) Add a new element (e.g. by clicking the Add new button; Alt+A),
(2) Right-click the newly added element, click Color, select the desired color, and then click OK to save the changes you have made,
(3) Right-click the element, choose Template : Save as template, and save the modified element under the Item name


The default font setting in Tools : Options : Font will not be reflected in elements using HTML components (#281)
(Julio S., Germany, Tuesday, January 28, 2003 3:45 PM)
Question:
I changed the default font setting for question and answer components with Tools : Options : Font : Default font, however, the displayed font has not changed.
Answer:
The change you have made will only be reflected in elements with plain text and RTF components, not HTML components, which is the default text component as of SuperMemo 2002. To change the default font used in your HTML components, run Internet Explorer, choose Tools : Internet Options... from its main menu, click the General tab, and the click the Font button at the bottom of the Internet Options dialog box. Alternatively, you can merge your items with templates using either plain text components (Classic) or RTF component (RTF Item)


Templates can affect formatting
(CMaggio99, Friday, May 10, 2002 12:04 AM)
Question:
Could I have changed a template setting that would have changed the way HTML files are displayed? When I import HTML files either through Shift+F8 or through Import file the file formatting is lost and so are the pictures
Answer:
Yes. This would happen if your template used an RTF component instead of an HTML component. RTF cannot display HTML formatting or pictures. Most likely, you will need to restore the default topic template in your default category to any HTML topic template (e.g. predefined "Article")


Limited Unicode support
(anguskwong, Wednesday, August 21, 2002 7:15 PM)
Question:
I want to use Chinese. What Unicode features are not supported? Storage, searching or displaying? Can I type in Unicode (I use Win 2000 professional), and the materials will get stored/displayed correctly? Will I be able to find it out later by doing a search?
Answer:
You can paste Chinese into HTML components and these should display correctly. However, these text will be converted to ASCII for storage in the registry. As a result you will not be able to search through the registry by typing Chinese search strings. Alternatively, you can use RTF components; however, these may confuse shorter Chinese texts due to the fact that different texts may map to the same registry strings. The best way to see the limitations of SuperMemo is to use a trial version for testing. SuperMemo 2004 partly solves this problem by using UTF-8 encoding


Gibberish titles in Arabic
(Beta, Terje, 2/27/02 09:46:41 PM)
Question:
I am trying to make HTML extracts with Arabic. The title generated automatically comes out gibberish
Answer:
This problem isn't universally solvable. To automatically generate the title, SuperMemo needs to map from Unicode to system font. Moreover, the title must comply with registry member naming, which is also based on a 256-character set. Many Windows controls simply do not support Unicode. The Unicode mapping must also maximize the uniqueness of texts as different texts (e.g. in different languages) with the same mapping will overwrite one another. The present mapping is based on readability of Cyrillic in Latin alphabet and indeed will be gibberish for Arabic texts. To change the title, use Alt+T. To make your texts meaningfully searchable in Arabic, you will also need to rename them in the text registry (e.g. open the current HTML component text with Ctrl+Shift+K). SuperMemo 2004 partly solves this problem by using UTF-8 encoding


Importing attachments together with e-mail (#12975)
(MM, Friday, October 11, 2002 3:54 AM)
Question:
I like incremental e-mail reading but ... how should I import attachments?
Answer:
It depends on the attachment. For example, you can easily paste a single picture. If you have more pictures, you may want to import them to separate elements. How you divide the elements will depend on the meaning of the pictures. Text attachments can be pasted below the text of the e-mail. Other attachments can be imported as links (e.g. you can save them in a dedicated folder outside SuperMemo). Last but not least, you may process attachments in your mail software in a traditional way. SuperMemo 2004 imports attachment from MS Outlook for you


Reading list is a subset of a tasklist
(Anatoliy Lipatov, Ukraine, Friday, January 10, 2003 8:59 AM)
Question:
Are reading list and tasklist the same terms?
Answer:
No, they are not. While tasklist is a form of to-do list sorted for priority, which is determined by the Value/Time ratio, reading list is the most important form of a tasklist, in which each task is an article to read. Furthermore, in reading lists the Time field is filled out by SuperMemo and reflects the length of the imported article, while in tasklists you have to determine it yourself. For more information on tasklists, please read: How to break free from work overload?


Question:
Recently I had to format my hard disk. After restoring my collection back-up from CDR, I get the following error: 'Access denied! System locked by another user'. What is happening?
Answer:
You need to remove the read-only attribute from the collection files


Empty texts indicate integrity problem
(Liz Churton, United Kingdom, 09/02/02 21:29:22)
Question:
SuperMemo has just displayed the following error: 
"Empty RTF text found at registry member 
#Text #18: "Do not assume a deficit model"
Answer:
"Empty RTF text found at registry member <member number>" error indicates that a rich text registry member is associated with rich text that is empty. This should not occur in normal circumstances and may indicate a damage to your text registry. Review your text registry, your collection, make a backup and run File : Repair collection with Rebuild registries checked. File : Repair collection should eliminate integrity problems, but data that might have been lost will not be restored. For similar reasons, it is important to keep monthly or even weekly backups of your most precious data


Before you drag elements in the Contents windows, make sure to set the desired mode for drag-and-drop operations
(Steven White, Australia, Saturday, August 31, 2002 11:43 AM)
Question:
When I try to drag-and-drop elements in the contents window, no matter where I drag them, I keep getting the same message: "Selected node does not have children"
Answer:
You must first specify the mode for drag-and-drop operations in the drag-and-drop combo box on the edit toolbar in the contents window. The message may indicate you are trying to transplant children of a childless element


SuperMemo 2000 is free for users of SuperMemo 2002 (#11216)
(orson, Fri, Jun 28, 2002 17:07)
Question:
I just purchased SuperMemo 2002, and realized it requires IE 6. Is it possible for me to also get the previous version of SuperMemo without paying for the extra license?
Answer:
Yes. Rarely do users of SuperMemo prefer or need to reverse to earlier versions. Outdated Internet Explorer may be a reason for users of SuperMemo 2002 to temporarily reverse to SuperMemo 2000. All users of new SuperMemos can request a copy of older versions free. 
Important!
It is not recommended to use two incompatible versions of SuperMemo on the same PC


Remember to copy header information to e-mail tasklist
Question:
Why do I have to type in sender information after pasting an e-mail to an e-mail tasklist? This makes e-mail tasklists unusable for most short messages!
Answer:
When using Ctrl+Alt+E, remember to copy the entire e-mail to the clipboard, including its header. SuperMemo will parse header information and you will not have to type in anything


To have a template applied with Add new, you must select the appropriate category
(Vidar Garlie, Norway, Mar 18, 1999)
Question:
When I go to the contents window, select a category branch and press Alt+A, the template of this category is not used! Can you help?
Answer:
To use a category template, you have to first choose the category in the category combo box on the Tools toolbar. Selecting branches in the contents window does not affect the current category selection


Errors in counting operation progress are harmless
(JoSzwarc, Sat, Aug 11, 2001 23:20)
Question:
SuperMemo has just displayed the following error: "Done>TotalItems in TProgressBox.ShowDone: 8711>8693"
Answer:
This message crops up when SuperMemo makes a wrong estimation of the size of a particular job (e.g. searching the collection). Otherwise than indicating an estimation error, this bug message should be considered harmless. In case you know more about its context or can hypothesize on its causes, please write

You cannot open SM2002 collections with earlier versions of SuperMemo
Question:
I opened my SM2002 collection in SuperMemo 8. When I returned to SM2002 I got this error: 
Font registry access error! 
Prohibited access 
Position=7 
LastPosition=0
Answer:
You cannot open new collections with old SuperMemos! This can result in loss of data. As earlier version did not have sufficient protection again opening newer collection (even though you have been warned in the process that proceeding with Open collection will result in loss of data), it might be best to remove old versions of SuperMemo from your computer. If you keep some version-specific learning material, keep both versions separated in different directories and do not open collections by double click on KNO files. SuperMemo 2002 will attempt to inactivate earlier versions found on your computer


First recovery will correct topic-item statistics
(Piotr M., Mon, Feb 04, 2002 20:04)
Question:
On each collection upgrade, I get the following error at File : Repair collection
Topic A-Factor distribution discrepancy in category 1 
Topics reported: 0 
Topics found: 49 
Did you change anything in the algorithm?
Answer:
SuperMemo 2002 separates topic and item statistics. The correct statistics are first tallied up at upgrade recovery. Those errors can be ignored. Topic and item statistics are kept independent of the learning algorithm. These are simple sums and averages that characterize the learning process. In the quoted example, topic A-Factor distribution was empty upon upgrade and filled out upon first recovery. As interpretation of A-Factors differs between topics and items, A-Factor distribution graphs should be separated for clarity. This is what SuperMemo 2002 does


Repetition history errors on upgrade
(Zoran, Mon, Feb 11, 2002 10:12)
Question:
I got many stray repetition record errors when upgrading my collection from SuperMemo 2000. Should I worry about this?
Answer:
No. These errors come from bugs in repetition history garbage collection in SuperMemo 2000. These were harmless. You can check your Repetitions and Retention data in Workload to check for potential, but rather unlikely, distortions in your repetition history. This data is not used in the learning process. It is collected for your information only


Repetition history errors
(J.P., 3/15/02)
Question:
I got the following error during recovery: 
Records beyond file end at Topic #65: Hydrogen (Greek, "water former")
Answer:
One of the records in your repetition history stored a pointer that pointed to beyond the end of the repetition history file (RepHist.dat). Earlier versions of SuperMemo did not do any integrity checks on repetition history and some bugs might have gone undetected


RTF will still be the default format in a collection upgraded from SuperMemo 2000
(Terje, Mon, Apr 01, 2002 2:58)
Question:
Edit : Add a new article (Ctrl+Alt+N) pastes the article from IE 6 in RTF not HTML
Answer:
If you upgraded your collection from SuperMemo 2000, SuperMemo 2002 will not change your defaults. You need to change your default topic template in your current category (e.g. use the predefined "Topic" template)


Converting RTFs to HTMLs en masse
(T.T., Feb 17, 2002)
Question:
Can I convert all my RTFs to HTML?
Answer:
If you use RTFs in a template, you can quickly convert lots of RTFs to HTML by saving the new HTML template over the old one (or just renaming HTML template into RTF template). However, the actual conversion will only take place the first time you open each individual element


Inspecting text file format
(Piotr, Feb 06, 2002)
Question:
How can I quickly see the file format of a given text (e.g. RTF, HTML, etc.)?
Answer:
Click the text and choose Shift+Ctrl+K. The file format is displayed at the bottom panel (it is empty for plain text)


Upgrading plain text
(Piotr, Sun, Feb 17, 2002 15:56)
Question:
Article template works OK only with newly imported e-mails. All that have been imported earlier as RTF or plain text lose their new line characters
Answer:
Plain texts DO NOT get upgraded. They are just loaded as is into HTML component. As HTML ignores carriage return and line feed characters, your text may look cramped. It it enough you detach your HTML template (Article) to return your text back to previous looks. You can then do two things: 

  1. edit this text in any way in the rich text component and repeat the upgrade. This will convert the text to RTF, which then will subsequently be upgraded to HTML upon applying your HTML template 
  2. copy this text to clipboard and paste it back after applying the HTML template (this will convert it to HTML and insert new line characters accordingly)

Lost formatting on RTF -> HTML upgrade
(Piotr, Feb 19, 2002)
Question:
I am upgrading my collection to HTML but some of my RTF texts lost formatting
Answer:
The most likely reason is that these texts were marked as read-only (e.g. after an import from MS Office). In such cases, SuperMemo takes their plain text version from text registry to display as HTML. You can try to paste these texts to HTML and if this does not help, open them in MS Word, edit any portion and re-save. This is enough to remove RTF-Protect flag. Once the flag is removed, the upgrade to HTML should retain the formatting


Fonts size on upgrade
(Beta, February 2002)
Question:
When I apply an HTML template to an RTF component, fonts often get much smaller than in the original
Answer:
This is a problem with Microsoft conversion filters. Press Ctrl+] to increase the font size after the upgrade (if applicable)


Subscript conversion problems
(Beta, February 2002)
Question:
When I apply an HTML template to an RTF component, some of subscripts get converted to normal text
Answer:
This is a problem with Microsoft conversion filters. Use subscript and superscript buttons on the Format toolbar to reformat this text. You can also open the source code of your text (Ctrl+Shift+F6) and enclose the subscript in <sub> and </sub> HTML tags


Old SuperMemo called after an upgrade to SuperMemo 2002
(nleric2002, Sweden, Tuesday, June 04, 2002 1:04 PM)
Question:
I have purchased an upgrade for SuperMemo 2002. But when I try to run the programme I get the following message: 
To open this collection you need a newer version of SuperMemo! 
Collection: C:\Supermemo\systems\ABC 
Current version: 10.00 (Nov 13, 2000)
Answer:
Most likely you double-clicked the ABC.kno collection instead of running SuperMemo 2002. This way your old SuperMemo was run as specified in Windows registry. Please double click SM2002.exe instead. This will inactivate old SuperMemo and solve the problem. Do not forget to back up your old collections before you upgrade to SuperMemo 2002


Reading list is a special case of a tasklist
(Beta, Germany, Sat, Mar 30, 2002 3:59)
Question:
If a press F4 or Ctrl+F4 the same Tasklist manager window opens
Answer:
Reading lists are a subset of tasklists. If your default reading list is selected as the default tasklist, they will both open with F4 (default tasklist) and Ctrl+F4 (default reading list)


How to change an e-mail addresses in an e-mail collection?
(Beta, Maxim, Poland, Apr 18, 2002)
Question:
I use SuperMemo for incremental e-mail processing but ... I noticed a weakness: my colleague has changed an e-mail address. I will have to remember to change that address in Outlook each time I respond to his older pieces
Answer:
Do the following: 

  1. Ctrl+S, search for the old address 
  2. Ctrl+R, replace old address with the new one (in the text registry subset) 

Note that you should rather read it as a strength of SuperMemo. MS Outlook will not let you change e-mail addresses in mail archive. In Outlook, you will have to pull the new address from Address Book each time you respond to older mail


Global question-answer swapping is rarely applicable and hence not implemented
(Patrik Nilsson, Tuesday, July 24, 2001 9:27 AM)
Question:
Is there any way to define a component both as question and answer? Instead of creating multiple items? For example, if I have a molecule: Ask for its name through showing its structure and next time show its name and I should know its structure?
Answer:
No. Both suggested elements should have a separate learning process. For this reason, you need to create a duplicate. You will probably discover that a plain swap name-picture is rarely an efficient way of formulating your questions. Many of such created items will become very difficult to remember. You will have to develop individual strategies for dealing with difficult material (e.g. answering questions about individual components of the molecule instead of the whole molecule at once). This is why a simple swap of the question with the answer is rarely a workable solution


Cannot paste a picture (#13441)
(Tamhankar, Nitin, Wednesday, October 16, 2002 4:31 PM)
Question:
I was having problems copying a figure (picture) into the element. I tried to copy it from the web and then did Shift+Insert without any luck
Answer:
You must make sure you are pasting to the element, not to a component (e.g. text component). Try to press Esc a few times if you are not sure


Saving remote objects within the collection
(Beta February ..., February 2002)
Question:
How can I save images pasted to HTML from a remote website on my hard disk?
Answer:
Open your HTML text in Internet Explorer (e.g. with F9), copy the filename from the URL field to the clipboard, use File : Save As in Internet Explorer, paste the filename and save the file. Internet Explorer will now keep all pictures locally on your hard-disk within the collection filespace. Be sure that your component is not in the editing mode. Otherwise it will write over your saved changes as soon as you return to SuperMemo


How to avoid "Wait for document loading" (#13523)
(Tamhankar, Nitin, Friday, October 18, 2002 10:29 PM)
Question:
I see the message "Wait for document loading" every time I do Ctrl+X
Answer:
Your HTML documents load slowly. Try to filter HTML files with F6 (e.g. remove tables), delete remote server ballast such as icons, unused pictures, etc. The shorter and simpler the text, the less likely the delay. For more see: HTML FAQ. SuperMemo 2004 uses some tricks to avoid loading delays without displaying this message. In that respect, it is a bit less annoying


Blocking parts of pictures
(Perseus Missirlis, Canada, Sunday, August 04, 2002 3:08 AM)
Question:
How do I bring in pictures? How do I block out certain sections of the pictures?
Answer:
You can import pictures by simply pasting them to SuperMemo. Then you need to learn how to create so-called occlussion tests. Here are some articles that discuss this: 


SuperMemo 2002 peels off meta tags
(Tomá‘ Klinkovský, Czech Republic, 21.6. 2002)
Question:
I learn HTML articles in Czech (usu. "windows-1250" codepage). When I edit the page, the text is rendered using a different code page. I can fix this by Ctrl+Shift+F6. I simply add:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1250" /> 

But when I make further changes in the editing mode this <meta> element is lost
Answer:
Indeed, SuperMemo peels off meta tags when saving HTML (precisely, it saves only the so-called "inner HTML"). This substantially reduces the size of collections, which are often full of short texts such as "yes", "no", "1987", etc. This behavior can be partly circumvented by importing full HTML pages or manually adding meta-tags. However, the outer HTML will be removed on first editing. SuperMemo 2004 introduces Full HTML parameter to allow you of keeping outer HTML


Question:
What should I use Duplicate for? What for do I need the same item in the same collection?
Answer:
You can duplicate an item, if you want to add to the another item which is only slightly different. This way you can spare some time by reediting the old item instead of typing in the new one