ABC Hints&Tips Overviews Reference Glossary Support
Contents : Overviews : Element type
Items, topics and tasks

A collection in SuperMemo is made of a set of elements. Each element is a page of information visible on the screen at one time. Elements in SuperMemo can be of three types: items, topics or tasks

This is the function of these three element types:

Let us first emphasize the difference between topics and items. Topics are used to introduce the student to a given subject, while items are used to rehearse the same subject in order to retain it in memory. Typically, you can import an article from the Internet (this will be a topic), extract its most important fragments (which will also be topics) and then convert it to question-and-answer material. Those questions-and-answers will be items

Example

Topics: A topic may contain the following text:

Jimmy Carter, born 1924, US statesman and 39th President (1977-1981), born in Plains, Georgia. He was educated at the US Naval academy, and served in the US Navy until 1953, when he took over the family peanut business and other enterprises. As Governor of Georgia (1970-1974) he expressed enlightened policy towards the rights of colored men and women. In 1976 he won the Democratic presidential nomination, and went on to win a narrow victory over Gerald Ford. He arranged the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel (1979), and was much concerned with human rights. His administration ended in difficulties over the taking of US hostages in Iran, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and was defeated by Ronald Reagan in the 1980 election

Items: To rehearse the knowledge of the facts presented in the above text, the following question-answer items might have been used:

Q: Which year was Jimmy Carter born?
A: 1924

Q: Who was 39th President?
A: Jimmy Carter

Q: When did Jimmy Carter become President?
A: 1977

Q: What academy did Jimmy Carter attend?
A: US Naval academy

Q: What kind of family business did Jimmy Carter take over in 1953?
A: peanut business,

etc. etc.

Topics and items are presented for review in the learning process in a different way:

If you generate items from topics by means of reading tools in the process of incremental reading, items will usually be children of topics in the knowledge tree. Even if you move items away from their parent topics, you can always jump back to the source topic by using the reference hyperlink button on the element toolbar.

Tasks differ from topics only with the fact that they are kept on one of your tasklists. Tasklists are prioritized lists of tasks. Tasklists which are composed of articles to read are called reading lists. Tasks can also enter the learning process and still remain on the tasklist.

The following table summarizes the differences between items, topics and tasks:

Properties

Items

Topics Tasks

Length

Must be as short and simple as possible

May contain lengthy texts and rich graphics, but can also be made of short extracts or single sentences May be either short (e.g. task description, URL, etc.) or long (e.g. reading list articles)

Repetitions

Repeated as many times as it takes to keep them in memory

Presented in always increasing intervals May never enter the review process. If they are subject to review, they behave in the same way as topics

Purpose

Used for rehearsing knowledge

Used as an introduction to knowledge Use to define to-do-tasks, e.g. articles to read, jobs to do, e-mail to respond to, etc.

Created

Usually by Add new (Alt+A) or by Reading : Remember cloze on the component menu in incremental reading

Usually by pasting articles from the clipboard with Ctrl+Alt+N or by Reading : Remember extract on the component menu in incremental reading Usually by Add a new task (Ctrl+Alt+A)

Setting the type

Check Type : Item on the element menu or Element type : Item in the element parameters dialog box (Ctrl+Shift+P)

Check Type : Topic on the element menu or Element type : Topic in the element parameters dialog box (Ctrl+Shift+P) Check Type : Task on the element menu or Element type : Task in the element parameters dialog box (Ctrl+Shift+P)

Repetition cycle

First question components are presented. Answer components are presented only after choosing Show answer

Topics are just presented as they are (even if some components are checked as Answer) Rarely do task take part in repetitions. They are just presented as they are (like topics)

Processing

They are intended for active recall of information from memory

They are intended for passive review or reading They await processing in a tasklist

Form

Stimulus-response (most often: question and answer)

Article Depends on the purpose (e.g. URL, e-mail, article, name, job description, etc.)

Location in the knowledge tree

Usually as children of the parent topic (if any)

Usually as parents of items generated with cloze deletion Within the category on which the tasklist is built

How they enter the learning process

Usually enter the learning process at the moment of being formulated (e.g. with Remember cloze) or via Remember or via the pending queue  Usually enter the learning process at the moment of being imported (e.g. with Ctrl+Alt+N) or extracted (Remember extract). Less often: picked from the pending queue May not take part in the review process at all. Introduced into review by tasklist priority sequence with Remember (and usually converted to a topic at the same time) 

The structure of the knowledge tree will usually be determined by the operations you perform in the process of incremental reading. However, if you create a collection for use by others and would like to build a clear structure of presentation pages (topics) and the testing material (items), see: Building the knowledge tree